Morpholine contains secondary amine groups and has all the typical reactive characteristics of secondary amine groups. It can react with inorganic acids to form salts, and react with organic acids to form salts or amides, which can be subjected to alkylation reaction, and can also be reacted with ethylene oxide, ketone or Willgerodt reaction. Morpholine is a six-membered ring containing oxygen and nitrogen, and its alkalinity is much lower than that of its parent piperidine. The marketed morpholine drugs are mainly distributed in the fields of tumors, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, respiratory system diseases, digestive system diseases, infectious diseases and mental disorders.
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Oxygen heterocycles are one of the most common heterocycles in drugs and natural products. Oxetene has high polarity and is also a good acceptor for hydrogen bond, which contributes to the metabolism and chemical stability of its host molecules. When substituted for commonly used functional groups such as gem dimethyl or carbonyl, oxetane units can induce profound changes in water solubility, lipophilicity, metabolic stability and conformational preference. Four of the FDA-approved drugs contain oxetenes: Orlistat, Paclitaxel, and two of its derivatives, Docetaxel and Cabazitaxel. Currently, oxetane-containing building blocks are flourishing in medicinal chemistry and drug discovery.