A catalyst refers to a substance that increases the rate of a reaction without changing the overall standard Gibbs free energy change of the reaction. Ligands represent atoms, molecules, and ions that can bond with a central atom (metal or metalloid). In general, ligands will donate at least one electron when participating in a bond. Two-phase catalysis of catalysts and ligands is the first application in the field of fluorine chemistry. The method of self-fluorine two-phase catalysis has developed rapidly, and a large number of new fluorine-based catalysts and ligands (especially phosphines) have been obtained in the field of chemistry.
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