Benzene is an important organic compound with the chemical formula C6H6, and its molecule consists of a ring of 6 carbon atoms, each with 1 hydrogen atom. Benzene is a sweet, flammable, colorless and transparent liquid with carcinogenic toxicity at room temperature, and has a strong aromatic odor. It is insoluble in water, easily soluble in organic solvents, and can also be used as an organic solvent itself. The ring system of benzene is called benzene ring, and the structure after removing one hydrogen atom from the benzene ring is called phenyl. Benzene is one of the most important basic organic chemical raw materials. Many important chemical intermediates can be derived from benzene through substitution reaction, addition reaction and benzene ring cleavage reaction.
Nitrogen compounds can be classified as mineral or organic. Mineral compounds are essentially formed by the ammonium ion (NH4+), which is generated when ammonium salts are dissolved in water. Organic compounds, in contrast, are carbon and hydrogen compounds that contain a nitrogen atom. All organic nitrogen-containing compounds can be considered as derivatives of ammonia in which one or more hydrogen atoms are substituted by hydrocarbon radicals.